Kaski Air Pollution Study (KAPS)
The Kaski Air Pollution Study (KAPS) is an NIEHS-funded R01 case-control study of pulmonary TB disease and latent TB infection  in Nepal (Co-PIs: Michael Bates and Kirk Smith).  The cases are adult men and women recruited from the Regional TB Clinic (RTC) in Pokhara, and the controls are from surrounding communities, recruited through population-based sampling.  The aims are to determine whether biomass fuel and/or kerosene used for cooking, heating or lighting are risk factors for M tuberculosis infection or TB disease.

Pokhrel AK, Bates MN, Verma SC, Joshi HS, Sreeramareddy CT, Smith KR. Tuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: A Case–Control Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2010 April;118(4):558-564.

Lakshmi PVM, Virdi NK, Thakur JS, Smith KR, Bates MN,  Kumar R. Biomass fuel and risk of tuberculosis: a case–control study from Northern India. J Epidemiol Community Health 2012;66:5 457-461.

Bates MN, Khalakdina A, Pai M, Chang L, Lessa F, Smith KR (2007) Risk of Tuberculosis From Exposure to Tobacco Smoke A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 167:335-342. 

Mishra VK, Retherford RD, Smith KR (1999) Biomass Cooking Fuels and Tuberculosis in India. Int J Infect Dis 3:119-129

Bhaktapur Air Pollution Case-Control Study
The Bhaktapur air pollution case-control study was funded by the governments of Norway and Denmark in 2006 and the Kirk Smith research group was invited to add a household air pollution (HAP) monitoring component.  This study examines the association between solid fuel HAP and risk of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children in Bhaktapur, Nepal. The HAP level was measured in 824 kitchens of pneumonia cases and age-matched controls without pneumonia using the UC Berkeley Particle and Temperature Sensors (UCB-PATS). Separately, a sub-study was conducted in 60 households to validate the monitoring instruments.

Bates MN, Chandyo RK, Valentiner-Branth P, Pokhrel AK, Mathisen M, Basnet S, Shrestha PS, Strand TA, Smith KR. Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Childhood and Household Fuel Use in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Environ Health Perspect 121:637-642 (2013). 


PEER Study of Child Pneumonia
Through the PEER Health program (see below), our research group is assisting colleagues in Nepal to conduct a study examining the impacts on household air pollution and child respiratory disease of a biogas intervention in Western Nepal.  Biogas, methane produced biologically from animal waste in household digesters and burned cleanly for cooking and lighting, is used in many parts of the world, but has apparently not yet been examined systematically as a health intervention.   For more information see the Project Overview on the PEER website or contact Dr. Amod Pokhrel.

PEER Health is a USAID program which supports developing country researchers at universities and institutions of higher education in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In keeping with President Obama’s Global Health Initiative (GHI) to leverage ‘whole of government’ for improved global health, this program addresses evidence gaps in developing countries by supporting research partnerships between developing country Principal Investigators (PI) and scientists currently supported by US federal science agencies.  It is managed by the US National Academies of Science in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health.