Saban Research Institute Annual Symposium: GLOBAL IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN, February 9, 2017, Los Angeles, California. Presentation available at the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles symposium website.
Rising pollution is cutting short lives and impacting our world like never before. WION correspondent Madhumita Saha spoke to Professor Kirk Smith about health challenges and how it can be tackled.
Interview available here.
A new article in the medical journal The Lancet has concluded much of the Northern Hemisphere will be too hot by 2085 to host the Summer Olympics. Researchers are projecting only eight cities in the hemisphere outside of Western Europe would be cool enough to host the Games. This includes just three cities in North America: Calgary, Vancouver and San Francisco. The list of cities where it could be too hot is staggering: Istanbul, Madrid, Rome, Paris, Budapest, Tokyo, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles—and the list goes on. Extreme high temperatures have already impacted the athletic world. In 2007, high heat forced the cancellation of the Chicago Marathon. At this year’s U.S. Olympic marathon trials in Los Angeles, 30 percent of the runners dropped out of the race due to the heat. For more, we speak with Kirk Smith, lead author of the article and professor of global environmental health at the University of California, Berkeley.
Washington Post, Energy and Environment, August 16, 2016 Article on Smith et al. Lancet article.
From the article:
... scientists are going further by using the Games to teach a grim climate lesson. At a high-end scenario for greenhouse gas emissions, a team of researchers write in the influential medical journal The Lancet, fewer and fewer major cities will be able to host a Summer Olympics as the end of the century nears. The reason? Too much risk of seeing weather conditions get so hot and humid that they would pose a major heat illness danger to athletes.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi will unveil the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) at Ballia in Uttar Pradesh on May 1. The scheme aims to provide LPG connections without security deposits to 50 million women from BPL households over the next three years.
Beijing is shrouded in choking smog. Internationally, diesel cars have been rigged to cheat on emissions tests. How concerned should you be? Kirk R. Smith, PhD, MPH, Director of the Global Health and Environment Program at UC Berkeley, studies the dangers of airborne pollutants, and discusses what we can do to limit the risk. Air Pollution, What Can We Do?
26 MAY 2015 ¦ GENEVA - The World Health Assembly closed today, with Director-General Dr Margaret Chan noting that it had passed several “landmark resolutions and decisions”. Three new resolutions were passed today: one on air pollution, one on epilepsy and one laying out the next steps in finalizing a framework of engagement with non-State actors.
Delegates at the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to address the health impacts of air pollution – the world’s largest single environmental health risk. Every year 4.3 million deaths occur from exposure to indoor air pollution and 3.7 million deaths are attributable to outdoor air pollution. This was the first time the Health Assembly had debated the topic.
The resolution highlights the key role national health authorities need to play in raising awareness about the potential to save lives and reduce health costs, if air pollution is addressed effectively. It also stresses the need for strong cooperation between different sectors and integration of health concerns into all national, regional and local air pollution-related policies. It urges Member States to develop air quality monitoring systems and health registries to improve surveillance for all illnesses related to air pollution; promote clean cooking, heating and lighting technologies and fuels; and strengthen international transfer of expertise, technologies and scientific data in the field of air pollution.
The resolution asks the WHO Secretariat to strengthen its technical capacities to support Member States in taking action on air pollution. This includes further building capacity to: implement the "WHO air quality guidelines" and "WHO indoor air quality guidelines; conduct cost-benefit assessment of mitigation measures; and advance research into air pollution’s health effects and effectiveness. At the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly, WHO will propose a road map for an enhanced global response by the health sector that reduces the adverse health effects of air pollution.
The final resolution is available here.
“We’ve put the problem of household air pollution on the map, and it is recognized as one of most important public health issues in the world.”
BY STEPHEN ROBITAILLE JUNE 17, 2015
In the early 1980s, Kirk R. Smith PhD ’77, MPH ’72 was a newly minted professor initiating the first studies anywhere on indoor air pollution in the developing world. His research began with the documentation of indoor air pollution in villages from solid-fuel cookstoves, which burn fuel such as wood or coal, and the health impacts on those who use them. Today Smith is widely acknowledged as a world leader on household air pollution and its impacts on health and climate change. Smith, along with other researchers and graduate students, documented health and social impacts like chronic lung disease, and the dangers facing women during fuel collection trips. They also developed tools for measuring pollution levels and rating cookstoves to help identify designs that emit less pollution.
Through the 1990s, as climate change assumed greater importance in the scientific world, Smith’s work grew to include documentation of cookstoves’ worldwide contribution to climate change.
Along the way, Smith and his colleagues developed the concept of “co-benefits,” the accepted term today for anti-pollution efforts that deliver both health and climate outcomes—a reduction in smoke from cookstoves, for example, improves health as it boosts overall outdoor air quality and reduces the impacts of climate change.
But despite his more than three decades in the field, Smith still itches to make more concrete improvements in his chosen field.
He cites the example of a woman in India, who was a subject in his first study, in 1981, of cookstoves and household air pollution. The woman was the first person in the world to wear a pollution monitor in her dwelling, while she cooked on a traditional cookstove. Smith keeps a photo of her—with the monitor around her waist—in his office.
Smith revisited the village last summer and looked the woman up. She remembered Smith and the study in which she had participated, and the two posed for photos together. But Smith saw the woman still cooking on the same pollution-spewing cookstove as when he met her 33 years ago.
“We’ve put the problem of household air pollution on the map, and it is recognized as one of most important public health issues in the world. It is sobering, however, that poor water and sanitation were recognized as a problem in the late 1800s, but still pose serious health risks in poor countries. We don’t want to be 120 years from now and have still not done anything about household air pollution,” says Smith. “At this point, I’m not so interested in finding yet another disease associated with it—the question is, what do we do about it that works?”
With that question in mind, Smith has been contributing to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports for many years. The IPCC is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change, operating under the auspices of the United Nations. It does not conduct research or monitor climate change data, but focuses on review and assessment of the most recent scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change.
“It’s very complicated business, climate change,” says Smith. “The IPCC reports are the mother of all assessments; they are the most comprehensive review available anywhere. They are signed off on by 190 governments, ranging from Saudi Arabia to Cuba, with 800 scientists directly contributing—and that’s a remarkable achievement for humanity.”
Smith is a convening lead author for the health chapter of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, which was published in October 2014. In 2007, he was a contributing author to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. The IPCC shared that year’s Nobel Peace Prize with former Vice President Al Gore.
2014 Haagen-Smit awards recognize outstanding air quality achievements in research, science and technology advancements
Release Date: 07/01/2015
By Jasmin M. Huynh
Kirk R. Smith, professor of global environmental health at the UC Berkeley School of Public Health, is one of three recipients of the 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Award. He was recognized for his leadership in research and international efforts in the area of household air pollution from solid-fuel burning traditional cookstoves.
Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards, the "Nobel Prize" in air quality achievement, are given annually by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to individuals who have made significant lifetime contributions toward improving air quality and climate change science, technology and policy, furthering the protection of public health.
"These three individuals have championed public health with extraordinary contributions to air pollution science, research and technology," says ARB Chairman Mary D. Nichols. "The Haagen-Smit Award is our way of honoring these individuals who have demonstrated a sustained commitment to protecting public health throughout their long and distinguished careers."
Smith’s research on the complexity of household air pollution exposure was critical in the development of global burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization, which now ascribes more than four million premature deaths to household smoke from solid fuels. He has documented the associated risk for pneumonia and adverse birth outcomes in children, and for cataracts, tuberculosis, heart disease, and chronic lung disease in women.
He holds visiting professorships in India and China where he has worked since the early 1980s collecting field measurements, pursuing quantitative research, and working closely with medical and engineering professionals to bring clean air to residents of developing countries, particularly those who, by virtue of their household circumstances, suffer extremely high exposures to smoke from solid-fuel burning in traditional cookstoves.
Smith’s research and influence also extend to energy and climate. He was a key participant in the Global Energy Assessment and lead author of the health chapter in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Working Group on Impacts. He serves on a number of national and international scientific advisory committees, including the National Research Council’s Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate, the Executive Committee for the World Health Organization’s Air Quality Guidelines, and the International Comparative Risk Assessment of the Global Burden of Disease Project.
He was elected as a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1997. In 2009, he received the Heinz Prize in Environment and was awarded the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 2012.
Smith was honored with the Haagen-Smit Clean Air Award on June 25 in Sacramento. He also gave a Clean Air Leadership Talk on June 24. The two other recipients of the award are Donald R. Blake, professor of chemistry at UC Irvine, and John C. Wall, vice president and chief technical officer for diesel engine manufacturer Cummins Inc.
The award is named for the late Dr. Arie Haagen-Smit, known as the "father" of air pollution science and control. The award recognizes those who continue his legacy through perseverance, leadership, and innovation in the areas of research, environmental policy, science and technology, public education, and community service. The selection committee is comprised of past award winners.
U.S. EPA awards U.C. Berkeley $1.5 million to evaluate air pollution in developing nations
Release Date: 05/28/2014
Contact Information: Rusty Harris-Bishop, firstname.lastname@example.org, 415.972.3140
(5/28/2014) SAN FRANCISCO – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced it is awarding the University of California, Berkeley, a $1.5 million grant for work to assess the impact of pollution from household and village-scale stoves on air quality in developing countries. The grant is part of $9 million awarded nationally to six universities to research cleaner technologies and fuels for cooking, lighting, and heating homes.
“More than three billion people worldwide rely on burning fuels such as wood, plant matter, and animal waste for domestic cooking,” said Jared Blumenfeld, EPA’s Regional Administrator for the Pacific Southwest. “The soot produced by these unventilated stoves is thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide in terms of global warming.”
This project addresses whether health benefits can be gained by exchanging a single stove in a home, or whether neighborhood scale interventions are needed to reduce personal exposures to cookstove emissions. Measurements of pollution traveling between indoor and outdoor air are crucial to fully understanding the health and climatic impacts of indoor cookstoves. Because of this project’s focus on the exchange between residential and outdoor pollution and its focus on India, the research adds great value to the scientific and geographic aspects of the portfolio.
This research will be particularly valuable in evaluating which intervention type and spatial scale can provide the most effective air quality improvements relating to human health. The results will also improve air quality modeling of cookstove emissions surrounding households by comparing real world monitoring data to modeled assessments.
Air emissions from these stoves lead to an estimated four million deaths per year. Researchers receiving funding are also determining the health and environmental benefits of cleaner cooking techniques. In the United States, cookstoves are commonly used in tribal communities of the desert Southwest.
Traditional cookstoves are a major source of black carbon aerosols, producing one-fifth of all black carbon emissions globally. Aerosols are solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere that impact our climate by affecting the amount of radiation from the sun that reaches the earth. Black carbon is emitted directly into the atmosphere in the form of particulate matter. In addition to contributing to climate change, these particles disrupt precipitation patterns and accelerate the melting of snow and ice, which many people rely on for drinking water and farming.
This Science to Achieve Results (STAR) funded research will focus on measuring and communicating the benefits of adopting cleaner cooking, heating, and lighting practices. The research will describe the benefits for slowing climate change as well as for protecting both indoor and outdoor air quality.
For more information, visit: http://epa.gov/ncer/rfa/2012/2012_star_cook_heat_light.html
Measures Must Be Taken Now to Mitigate Climate Change, Smith Says
May 9, 2014
On the heels of the most recent meeting of the United Nations Environment Programme's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Berkeley Professor Kirk Smith visited CEU to deliver a lecture on “Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Health: Co-benefits and Cross-benefits.” At the May 5 event, Smith emphasized that the steps we take – or fail to take – to mitigate negative climate change have long-term effects.
“The policy issues that we have to start working on now to change things are based on what we can't even measure yet (until after 2050),” he said. “You're always 50 years behind, before you can actually start seeing the benefits of what you do now.”
Human action or inaction in the last 50 years has led to CO2 levels that are higher now than any time in the past 400,000 years and the surface of the earth has warmed .08 degrees since the pre-industrial era. Often people dismiss the idea of global warming when massive blizzards hit and during prolonged periods of very cold temperatures. However, it's not individual high or low temperatures that determine climate change, it's the overall trend. Smith pointed out that we now – since 1950 – have more record high temperatures in the Western U.S. than low.
The most recent meeting of the IPCC reveals bleak scenarios for the late 21st century, including high certainty that incremental warming will continue along with increased heat waves/spells. Sea-level will also continue to rise, and we can expect both an increase in heavy precipitation in some parts of the world, while persistent drought will plague other parts.
Cooking and heating fuels used in underdeveloped countries is the “the largest single risk regarding environmental health,” Smith said. Cleaner-burning fuels are available but not usually financially accessible for large, poor populations. Solar-powered, induction and other “greener” stoves are also available but are not yet being mass produced.
The key to mitigating climate change, Smith noted, is in balancing global inequality of resources, including food, reproductive health care, and technology. To put it in perspective, Smith gave the example of how weather events affect countries differently. “The same size hurricane or tropical storm can hit Bangladesh and kill 10,000 people and only ten in Florida, because Florida is better protected.” He also noted the very stark difference between the developed world and underdeveloped world by noting the effects of malaria, a curable disease. According to the World Heath Organization, in 2012, 90 percent of the world’s malaria deaths occurred in Africa and about 460,000 African children died before their fifth birthdays.
Access to reproductive healthcare is vital to helping the poor, too, and to overall climate protection, Smith said. The IPCC Fifth Assessment reports that, globally, several hundred million women who wish to limit their families have restricted access to birth control. Fertility rate could be reduced by 0.5 births per woman (worldwide) by satisfying unmet demand for contraception, and such a shift would lower CO2 emissions by a staggering 40 percent by 2100 and bring large health gains.
In addition to natural disasters and increased trauma for the poor, climate change will have devastating effects on the economy. “This is the single biggest economic effect that climate change will have – it's going to affect human productivity. We might be able to develop a strain of wheat that can survive at higher temps, but humans simply cannot,” Smith said. Of the worldwide working population, 60 percent work outdoors, he noted. If measures aren't taken now to mitigate climate change, there will eventually be places where people simply cannot work outside.
Smith's main message – as well as that of the IPCC – is that measures must be taken now to protect ourselves and our planet. “Human response can change the outcome.”
Smith's lecture was sponsored by CEU's Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy and the Center for Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Policy (C3SEP). For further information, visit: http://www.ceu.hu/event/2014-05-05/public-lecture-professor-kirk-smith-university-california-berkeley and http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/Presentations/2014/CEU.pdf.
- See more at: http://www.ceu.hu/article/2014-05-09/measures-must-be-taken-now-mitigate-climate-change-smith-says#sthash.W1PclNOV.dpuf
Nearly half of the world’s population relies on fuels such as wood or dung for cooking and heating. In the 1980s, Kirk R. Smith, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a professor of global health at the University of California at Berkeley, sounded the alarm that these fuels, when burned in open fires or traditional cook stoves, produce high levels of indoor air pollution that prematurely kill about 2 million people each year—more than either malaria or tuberculosis, according to Smith. Cleaner alternatives to traditional cook stoves exist, but convincing funding agencies and decision makers to invest in these technologies requires substantive evidence of their health benefits, he says. Today, Smith—a 2012 recipient of the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement—develops inexpensive, portable electronic monitors to measure exposures to indoor air pollution in developing countries. Here, he explains how his research can aid the design and dissemination of solutions to tackle this ancient but still widespread problem.
John Seinfeld, PhD, and Kirk R. Smith, MPH, PhD, recognized for their work to advance understanding of air pollution and its impact on the health of humans and the planet
Los Angeles, CA (March 20, 2012) – The Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement honors two experts on air pollution with the 2012 Tyler Prize for their work to advance the scientific understanding of air pollution, and develop solutions to reduce the danger to human health and the impact on climate change.
Kirk R. Smith, MPH, PhD, of the University of California at Berkeley is recognized for his work identifying that household air pollution in developing nations is responsible for nearly two million premature deaths per year, disproportionately among women and children. John H. Seinfeld, PhD, of the California Institute of Technology, is recognized for his groundbreaking work leading to understanding of the origin, chemistry, and evolution of particles in the atmosphere. The fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of urban and regional air pollution that emerged from his research served as the basis for action to control the effects of air pollution on public health.
Since its inception in 1973 as one of the world’s first international environmental awards, the Tyler Prize has been the premier award for environmental science, environmental health and energy, given to those who confer great benefit upon humankind through environmental restoration and achievement. The Tyler Prize is administered by the University of Southern California.
“The Tyler Prize is the highest recognition in the field of environmental science,” said Seinfeld. “It’s a humbling honor.”
Previous laureates include Edward O. Wilson, recognized for his early work on the theory of island biogeography; Jane Goodall, selected for her seminal studies on the behavior and ecology of chimpanzees and her impact on wildlife awareness and environmental conservation; Jared Diamond, a renowned author who gave birth to the discipline of conservation biology; and Thomas Lovejoy, a central figure in alerting the world to the critical problem of dwindling tropical forests.
“Professors Smith and Seinfeld are giants in the efforts to understand and reduce the devastating impacts of air pollution,” said Tyler Prize Executive Committee Chair Owen T. Lind, Professor of Biology at Baylor University. “Their respective research has dramatically advanced our understanding of the ways in which air pollution threatens our health as individuals and the health of the planet.”
This year each Tyler Prize laureate will receive a $100,000 cash prize and a gold medal. The Prize honors exceptional foresight and dedication in the environmental sciences – qualities that mirror the prescience of the Prize’s founders, John and Alice Tyler, who established it while the environmental debate was still in its infancy.
By Sarah Yang | Media Relationsscyang@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-7741
Berkeley - Two new studies led by University of California, Berkeley, researchers spotlight the human health effects of exposure to smoke from open fires and dirty cookstoves, the primary source of cooking and heating for 43 percent, or some 3 billion members, of the world's population. Women and young children in poverty are particularly vulnerable.
In the first study, the researchers found a dramatic one-third reduction in severe pneumonia diagnoses among children in homes with smoke-reducing chimneys on their cookstoves. The second study uncovered a surprising link between prenatal maternal exposure to woodsmoke and poorer performance in markers for IQ at ages 6 and 7.
The findings on pneumonia, the chief cause of death for children five and under, will be published in the journal The Lancet on Thursday, Nov. 10, two days before World Pneumonia Day. While previous research has linked exposure to household cooking smoke to respiratory infections, the latest results come from the first-ever randomized controlled trial - the gold standard of scientific experiments - on air pollution.
"This study is critically important because it provides compelling evidence that reducing household woodsmoke exposure is likely a public health intervention that is on a par with vaccinations and nutrition supplements for reducing severe pneumonia, and is worth investing in," said Kirk Smith, professor of global environmental health at UC Berkeley's School of Public Health and principal investigator of the RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) study.
"There is a huge burden of disease and death due to child pneumonia, and there aren't a lot of good interventions out there," added Dr. Arthur Reingold, a UC Berkeley professor of epidemiology and an internationally recognized expert on infectious diseases, who was not part of the RESPIRE trial. "Randomized controlled trials are frequently demanded by funding agencies and decision makers before they are willing to make substantial investments in new technologies or strategies, and this study provides the needed evidence of an intervention that works."
In the RESPIRE study - which includes partners from Guatemala's Universidad Del Valle, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of Liverpool, Norway's University of Bergen and the World Health Organization ñ researchers worked with rural communities in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Households with a pregnant woman or young infant were randomly assigned to either receive a woodstove with a chimney or to continue cooking with traditional open woodfires.
The researchers found that using chimneys to vent cooking smoke outside homes led to a more striking decrease in cases of severe pneumonia compared with total pneumonia cases, possibly because the reduction in smoke with the chimney stoves was insufficient to significantly reduce all risk.
"The amount of smoke exposure babies were getting from the open woodfire stoves is comparable to having them smoke three to five cigarettes a day," said Smith, whose research in this field began 30 years ago. "The chimney stoves reduced that smoke exposure by half, on average."
In all there were 265 children in the chimney-stove homes and 253 children in the control homes. During the study, the researchers reported 149 children in the chimney-stove homes and 180 in the open-fire homes with physician-diagnosed pneumonia. For severe pneumonia, characterized by low blood oxygenation, there were 72 cases in the chimney-stove group and 101 in the control group.
In the second study, published online Sept. 24 in the journal NeuroToxicology, Smith led the research team that followed up with some of the families in the RESPIRE trial. That trial ended in 2005 when the infants were 18 months old. In 2010, the researchers recruited 39 mother-child pairs for the study, when the children were 6-7 years old.
The results found, for the first time, a link between exposure to woodsmoke ñ as determined by carbon monoxide levels measured individually ñ during the third trimester of pregnancy and lower performance on neurodevelopmental tests at ages 6 and 7. Specifically, the researchers found impairments in visuo-spatial perception and integration, visual-motor memory, and fine motor skills.
"I was surprised because woodsmoke was always considered a risk for respiratory health, but not IQ," said study lead author Linda Dix-Cooper, who conducted the study for her master's thesis in UC Berkeley's Global Health and Environment graduate program. "The implications of our findings are highly worrisome. Neurodevelopmental impacts have societal costs, such as impacts on an individual's future lifetime earnings and educational attainment."
Dix-Cooper added that similar cognitive impacts among children have been noted in previous case reports of childhood acute carbon monoxide poisonings and in epidemiological investigations of other prenatal air pollutant exposures in developed countries' urban centers. However, larger studies are needed to confirm the link with pollution from woodsmoke, she said.
The new studies come amid growing worldwide attention to the need for cleaner, more fuel-efficient cookstoves. Just last year, the United Nations Foundation launched the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, an international public-private initiative championed by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
In addition to the health consequences of burning wood, charcoal, dung or crop residue for cooking and heating, the alliance noted that use of traditional cookstoves increases pressures on local natural resources, contributes to climate change and puts women in danger when they forage for fuel in conflict zones.
Finding cleaner alternatives to traditional cookstoves has been an area of active research at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for decades. Some current projects are part of the UC Berkeley-based Blum Center for Developing Economies. They include one led by Smith to replace unhealthy coal stoves in rural China through carbon offsets, and another led by Daniel Kammen, Class of 1935 Distinguished Professor of Energy at UC Berkeley, to develop cost-effective methods to disseminate improved cook stoves throughout Tanzania.
"The biggest collection of people working in the area of cookstoves in the world is at UC Berkeley and LBNL," said Kammen, who co-authored a 2001 study in Kenya linking smoke from cookstoves and health problems that also appeared in The Lancet. "We are the center of this field in the academic community." Kammen just returned to campus from a one-year stint as the first clean-energy czar at the World Bank, one of the biggest sources of funding for cookstove projects and technology
Funding for The Lancet study was provided by the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the World Health Organization. The NeuroToxicology study was supported by the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, NIEHS and the Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health at UC Berkeley.
- Household Energy, Climate, and Health Project (UC Berkeley School of Public Health project)
- Cutting greenhouse pollutants could directly save millions of lives worldwide (UC Berkeley press release)
- UC Berkeley, Princeton team demonstrates cheap way to reduce toll of respiratory illness from indoor cooking fires in Third World (UC Berkeley press release)
- Cookstoves, Climate Change & Health (Blum Center project)
- Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Refugees (Blum Center project)
- Establishing Effective Cookstove Dissemination Strategies in Tanzania (Blum Center project)
- Ghana Cookstoves Feasibility Study (Blum Center project)
CONTACTS Kirk Smith, Professor, email@example.com, O: (510) 643-0793/9166, C: (510) 914-0620 (Smith will be out of town from Nov. 9-12, but will be available by cell and email during that time.)