• Previous CRA/GBD Projects
  1. Ezzati, M., A. D. Lopez, et al. (2002). "Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease." Lancet 360(9343): 1347-60. Full Article (pdf)
  2. Smith, K. R. and S. Mehta (2003). "The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates." Int J Hyg Environ Health 206(4-5): 279-89.. Full Article (pdf)
  3. Smith, K. R. and M. Ezzati (2005). "How Environmental Health Risks Change with Development: The Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Transitions Revisited."Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 291-333. Full Article (pdf)
  4. Smith KR, Mehta S, Maeusezahl-Feuz M (2004) Indoor smoke from household solid fuels. In Ezzati M, Rodgers AD, Lopez AD, Murray CJL (eds) Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to Selected Major Risk Factors, Geneva: World Health Organization, Vol 2: pp. 143. Full Article (pdf)
  5. Smith KR and Ezzati M (2005) How Environmental Health Risks Change With Development: The Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Transitions Revisited. Annu Rev Environ Resour, 30:291–333. Full Article (pdf)
  • Exposure Assessment Documents
    1. Mehta, S., Gore, F., Pruss, A., Rehfuess, E. and Smith, K. (2006). "Modeling household solid fuel use towards reporting of the the Millenium Development Goal Indicator." Energy for Sustainable Development X(3): 36-45. Full Article (pdf)
    2. Rehfuess, E., and Lambach, P. (2008). "Reporting on solid fuel use, cooking practices and WHO databases." Indoor Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use Expert Group; International Comparative Risk Assessment Project, Department of Public Health and Environment. Full Article (pdf)
    3. Rehfuess, E., S. Mehta, et al. (2006). "Assessing household solid fuel use: multiple implications for the Millennium Development Goals." Environ Health Perspect 114(3): 373-8. Full Article (pdf)
  • Household Fuel Pollution Expert Group Progress Reports
    • GBD/CRA Meeting IHME--Seattle, February 19-20, 2009

      #1 Outcomes (ppt)

      #2 Exposures (ppt) #3 Framing Issues (ppt) Health Outcome CRA Meeting W.H.O.--Geneva, Switzerland, July 8, 2009

      Biomass and Lung Cancer Update (ppt)

      Coal and Lung Cancer (ppt) IAP & Pregnancy Outcomes (ppt) UADT Cancers (ppt)

      Final CRA Meeting University of California Berkeley, December 6-8, 2009

      Health Outcome & Exposure Presentations

    • Household Water, Sanitation, Hygiene
      • Fung, I. C. and S. Cairncross (2006). "Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review." Trop Med Int Health 11(11): 1749-1758. Full Article (pdf)

        Rabie, T. and V. Curtis (2006). "Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review." Trop Med Int Health 11(3): 258-267. Full Article (pdf)

        Schmidt, W. P., S. Cairncross, et al. (2009). "Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years." Int J Epidemiol 38(3): 766-772. Full Article (pdf)

        Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Presentation - CHERG/WSH presentation given for the CRA/GBD management team meeting, Seattle, WA (2009) Presentation (pdf)

    • Health Endpoints: ALRI
      • Dherani, M., D. Pope, et al. (2008). "Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuel use and pneumonia risk in children aged under five years: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Bull World Health Organ 86(5): 390-398C. Full Article (pdf)

        Organization, W. H. (2007). "Indoor air pollution and lower respiratory tract infections in children: report of a symposium held at the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, Paris, 4 September 2006, presenting preliminary results of a randomized intervention trial in Guatemala and a workshop discussing the implication for policy, advocacy and future research." Geneva, World Health Organization: 17-22. Full Article (pdf)

    • Health Endpoints: COPD
      • Bruce, N., L. Neufeld, et al. (1998). "Indoor biofuel air pollution and respiratory health: the role of confounding factors among women in highland Guatemala." Int J Epidemiol 27(3): 454-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Caballero, A., C. A. Torres-Duque, et al. (2008). "Prevalence of COPD in five Colombian cities situated at low, medium, and high altitude (PREPOCOL study)." Chest133(2): 343-9. Full Article (pdf)

        Diaz, E., N. Bruce, et al. (2007). "Lung function and symptoms among indigenous Mayan women exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis11(12): 1372-9. Full Article (pdf)

        Liu, S., Y. Zhou, et al. (2007). "Biomass fuels are the probable risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural South China." Thorax 62(10): 889-97. Full Article (pdf)

        Liu, Y., K. Lee, et al. (2008). "Outdoor and indoor air pollution and COPD-related diseases in high- and low-income countries." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12(2): 115-27. Full Article (pdf)

        Norman, R., E. Cairncross, et al. (2007). "Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air pollution in South Africa in 2000." S Afr Med J 97(8 Pt 2): 782-90. Full Article (pdf)

        Torres-Dosal, A., I. N. Perez-Maldonado, et al. (2008). "Indoor air pollution in a Mexican indigenous community: evaluation of risk reduction program using biomarkers of exposure and effect." Sci Total Environ 390(2-3): 362-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Viegi, G., F. Pistelli, et al. (2007). "Definition, epidemiology and natural history of COPD." Eur Respir J 30(5): 993-1013. Full Article (pdf)

        Zhong, N., C. Wang, et al. (2007). "Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a large, population-based survey." Am J Respir Crit Care Med176(8): 753-60. Full Article (pdf)

    • Health Endpoints: Cancer
      • Straif, K., R. Baan, et al. (2006). "Carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion and of high-temperature frying." Lancet Oncol 7(12): 977-8. Full Article (pdf)
      • Zhang, L., C. Steinmaus, et al. (2008). "Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: A new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms." Mutat Res. Full Article (pdf)
    • Health Endpoints: TB
      • Altet, M. N., J. Alcaide, et al. (1996). "Passive smoking and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in children immediately following infection. A case-control study." Tuber Lung Dis 77(6): 537-44. Full Article (pdf)

        Barrett, E. G., R. D. Henson, et al. (2006). "Effects of hardwood smoke exposure on allergic airway inflammation in mice." Inhal Toxicol 18(1): 33-43. Full Article (pdf)

        Bates, M. N., A. Khalakdina, et al. (2007). "Risk of tuberculosis from exposure to tobacco smoke: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Arch Intern Med 167(4): 335-42. Full Article (pdf)

        Batista, J. et. al. (2008). "Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment." Int J Epidemiol(37): 841-851 Full Article (pdf)

        Bidani, A., C. Z. Wang, et al. (1998). "Cotton smoke inhalation primes alveolar macrophages for tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and suppresses macrophage antimicrobial activities." Lung 176(5): 325-36. Full Article (pdf)

        Bidani, A., C. Z. Wang, et al. (1996). "Early effects of smoke inhalation on alveolar macrophage functions." Burns 22(2): 101-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Boelaert, J. R., M. S. Gomes, et al. (2003). "Smoking, iron, and tuberculosis." Lancet362(9391): 1243-4. Full Article (pdf)

        Chiang, C. Y., K. Slama, et al. (2007). "Associations between tobacco and tuberculosis." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11(3): 258-62. Full Article (pdf)

        Cohen, A. and S. Mehta (2007). "Pollution and tuberculosis: outdoor sources." PLoS Med 4(3): e142. Full Article (pdf)

        Crampin, A. C., J. R. Glynn, et al. (2004). "Tuberculosis and gender: exploring the patterns in a case control study in Malawi." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8(2): 194-203. Full Article (pdf)

        Danielsen, P. H., E. V. Brauner, et al. (2008). "Oxidatively damaged DNA and its repair after experimental exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans." Mutat Res642(1-2): 37-42. Full Article (pdf)

        Fick, R. B., Jr., E. S. Paul, et al. (1984). "Alterations in the antibacterial properties of rabbit pulmonary macrophages exposed to wood smoke." Am Rev Respir Dis 129(1): 76-81. Full Article (pdf)

        Gajalakshmi, V., R. Peto, et al. (2003). "Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43000 adult male deaths and 35000 controls." Lancet 362(9383): 507-15. Full Article (pdf)

        Gordeuk, V. R., C. E. McLaren, et al. (1996). "Associations of iron overload in Africa with hepatocellular carcinoma and tuberculosis: Strachan's 1929 thesis revisited."Blood 87(8): 3470-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Gupta, B. N., N. Mathur, et al. (1997). "A study of household environmental risk factors pertaining to respiratory diseases." Energy Environment Monitor 13(2): 61-67. Full Article (pdf)

        Houtmeyers, E., R. Gosselink, et al. (1999). "Regulation of mucociliary clearance in health and disease." Eur Respir J 13(5): 1177-88.. Full Article (pdf)

        Kode, A., S. R. Yang, et al. (2006). "Differential effects of cigarette smoke on oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine release in primary human airway epithelial cells and in a variety of transformed alveolar epithelial cells." Respir Res 7: 132. Full Article (pdf)

        Lam, T. H., S. Y. Ho, et al. (2001). "Mortality and smoking in Hong Kong: case-control study of all adult deaths in 1998." BMJ 323(7309): 361 Full Article (pdf)

        Larson, T. V. and J. Q. Koenig (1994). "Wood smoke: emissions and noncancer respiratory effects." Annu Rev Public Health 15: 133-56. Full Article (pdf)

        Leonard, S. S., S. Wang, et al. (2000). "Wood smoke particles generate free radicals and cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, NFkappaB activation and TNF-alpha release in macrophages." Toxicology 150(1-3): 147-57. Full Article (pdf)

        Lin, H. H., M. Ezzati, et al. (2007). "Tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis." PLoS Med 4(1): e20. Full Article (pdf)

        Mateos, F., J. H. Brock, et al. (1998). "Iron metabolism in the lower respiratory tract."Thorax 53(7): 594-600. Full Article (pdf)

        Mishra, V. K., R. D. Retherford, et al. (1999). "Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India." Int J Infect Dis 3(3): 119-29. Full Article (pdf)

        Naeher,L. et. al.(2007)'Woodsmoke Health Effects: A Review', Inhalation Toxicology,19:67 — 106. Full Article (pdf)

        Perez-Padilla, R., C. Perez-Guzman, et al. (2001). "Cooking with biomass stoves and tuberculosis: a case control study." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5(5): 441-7. Full Article (pdf)

        Shetty, N., M. Shemko, et al. (2006). "An epidemiological evaluation of risk factors for tuberculosis in South India: a matched case control study." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis10(1): 80-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Singh, M., M. L. Mynak, et al. (2005). "Prevalence and risk factors for transmission of infection among children in household contact with adults having pulmonary tuberculosis." Arch Dis Child 90(6): 624-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Sitas, F., M. Urban, et al. (2004). "Tobacco attributable deaths in South Africa." Tob Control 13(4): 396-9. Full Article (pdf)

        Slama, K., C. Y. Chiang, et al. (2007). "Tobacco and tuberculosis: a qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11(10): 1049-61. Full Article (pdf)

        Sopori, M. (2002). "Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system." Nat Rev Immunol 2(5): 372-7. Full Article (pdf)

        Weiss, G., G. Werner-Felmayer, et al. (1994). "Iron regulates nitric oxide synthase activity by controlling nuclear transcription." J Exp Med 180(3): 969-76. Full Article (pdf)

        Yang, S. R., A. S. Chida, et al. (2006). "Cigarette smoke induces proinflammatory cytokine release by activation of NF-kappaB and posttranslational modifications of histone deacetylase in macrophages." Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291(1): L46-57. Full Article (pdf)

        Zelikoff, J. T., L. C. Chen, et al. (2002). "The toxicology of inhaled woodsmoke." J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 5(3): 269-82. Full Article (pdf)

        Zelikoff, J. T., L. C. Chen, et al. (2003). "Effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on pulmonary antimicrobial immune defense." Inhal Toxicol 15(2): 131-50. Full Article(pdf)

    • Health Endpoints: LBW & APO
      • Boy, E., N. Bruce, et al. (2002). "Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala." Environ Health Perspect 110(1): 109-14. Full Article (pdf)

        Bruce, N., R. Perez-Padilla, et al. (2000). "Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge." Bull World Health Organ 78(9): 1078-92. Full Article (pdf)

        Ghosh, R., J. Rankin, et al. (2007). "Does the effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes differ by gender? A systematic review."u> Environ Res 105(3): 400-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Glinianaia, S. V., J. Rankin, et al. (2004). "Particulate air pollution and fetal health: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence." Epidemiology 15(1): 36-45. Full Article (pdf)

        Organization, W. H. (2007). "Indoor air pollution from solid fuels and risk of low birth weight and stillbirth: report from a symposium held at the Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), September 2005, Johannesburg." 32. Full Article (pdf)

        Kannan, S., D. P. Misra, et al. (2006). "Exposures to airborne particulate matter and adverse perinatal outcomes: a biologically plausible mechanistic framework for exploring potential effect modification by nutrition." Environ Health Perspect 114(11): 1636-42. Full Article (pdf)

        Leonardi-Bee, J., A. Smyth, et al. (2008). "Environmental tobacco smoke and fetal health: systematic review and meta-analysis." Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93(5): F351-61. Full Article (pdf)

        Lewtas, J. (2007). "Air pollution combustion emissions: characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects." Mutat Res 636(1-3): 95-133. Full Article (pdf)

        Maisonet, M., A. Correa, et al. (2004). "A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth." Environ Res 95(1): 106-15. Full Article (pdf)

        Mishra, V., X. Dai, et al. (2004). "Maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight in Zimbabwe." Ann Epidemiol 14(10): 740-7. Full Article (pdf)

        Parker, J. D. and T. J. Woodruff (2008). "Influences of study design and location on the relationship between particulate matter air pollution and birthweight." Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 22(3): 214-27. Full Article (pdf)

        Rinne, S. T., E. J. Rodas, et al. (2007). "Use of biomass fuel is associated with infant mortality and child health in trend analysis." Am J Trop Med Hyg 76(3): 585-91. Full Article (pdf)

        Ritz, B. and M. Wilhelm (2008). "Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: methodologic issues in an emerging field." Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102(2): 182-90. Full Article (pdf)

        Siddiqui, A. R., E. B. Gold, et al. (2008). "Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke and low birth weight." Environ Health Perspect 116(4): 543-9. Full Article (pdf)

        Slama, R., L. Darrow, et al. (2008). "Meeting report: atmospheric pollution and human reproduction." Environ Health Perspect 116(6): 791-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Sram, R. J., B. Binkova, et al. (2005). "Ambient air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: a review of the literature." Environ Health Perspect 113(4): 375-82. Full Article (pdf)

        Wang, L. and K. E. Pinkerton (2007). "Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development." Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 81(3): 144-54. Full Article (pdf)

    • Health Endpoints: Eye Disease
      • Avunduk, A. M., S. Yardimci, et al. (1997). "Determinations of some trace and heavy metals in rat lenses after tobacco smoke exposure and their relationships to lens injury." Exp Eye Res 65(3): 417-23. Full Article (pdf)

        Cekic, O. (1998)."Effect of cigarette smoking on copper, lead, and cadmium accumulation in human lens." Br J Ophthalmol 82(2): 186-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Cheng, A. C., C. P. Pang, et al. (2000). "The association between cigarette smoking and ocular diseases.". Hong Kong Med J 6(2): 195-202. Full Article (pdf)

        Van Heyningen, R. and A. Pirie (1967). "The metabolism of naphthalene and its toxic effect on the eye." Biochem J 102(3): 842-852. Full Article (pdf)

        Hoffmann, D., I. Hoffmann, et al. (2001). "The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue. a tribute to Ernst L. Wynder." Chem Res Toxicol 14(7): 767-90. Full Article (pdf)

        IACS, "Risk factors for age-related cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. The Italian-American Cataract Study Group." Am J Epidemiol, 1991. 133(6): p. 541-53. Full Article (pdf)

        Kunzli, N. (2005). "Commentary: Smoke pulls the blinds." Int J Epidemiol 34(3): 709-10. Full Article (pdf)

        Leske, M. C., L. T. Chylack, Jr., et al. (1991). "The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. Risk factors for cataract." Arch Ophthalmol 109(2): 244-51. Full Article (pdf)

        Mishra, V. K., R. D. Retherford, et al. (1999). "Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India." Int J Infect Dis 3(3): 119-29. Full Article (pdf)

        Mohan, M., et al., India-US case-control study of age-related cataracts. India-US Case-Control Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol, 1989. 107(5): p. 670-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Pokhrel, A. K., K. R. Smith, et al. (2005). "Case-control study of indoor cooking smoke exposure and cataract in Nepal and India." Int J Epidemiol 34(3): 702-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Preuss, R. A., Jurgen, Drexler, Hans (2003). "Napthalene--an environmental and occupation toxicant." Int Arch Occup Environ Health (76): 556-576. Full Article (pdf)

        Ramakrishnan, S., et al.," Smoking of beedies and cataract: cadmium and vitamin C in the lens and blood." Br J Ophthalmol, 1995. 79(3): p. 202-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Resnikoff, S., D. Pascolini, et al. (2004). "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002." Bull World Health Organ 82(11): 844-51. Full Article (pdf)

        Shalini, V.K., et al., "Oxidative damage to the eye lens caused by cigarette smoke and fuel smoke condensates." Indian J Biochem Biophys, 1994. 31(4): p. 261-6. Full Article (pdf)

        Solberg, Y., M. Rosner, et al. (1998). "The association between cigarette smoking and ocular diseases." Surv Ophthalmol 42(6): 535-47. Full Article (pdf)

        Terada, T. (2005). "Role of glutathione S-transferases in lens under oxidative stress."Journal of Health Science 51(3): 263-27. Full Article (pdf)

        Viau, C., G. Hakizimana, and M. Bouchard, "Indoor exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in traditional houses in Burundi." Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2000. 73(5): p. 331-8. Full Article (pdf)

        West, S. K. and C. T. Valmadrid (1995). "Epidemiology of risk factors for age-related cataract." Surv Ophthalmol 39(4): 323-34. Full Article (pdf)

        West, S. and A. Sommer (2001). "Prevention of blindness and priorities for the future."Bull World Health Organ 79(3): 244-8. Full Article (pdf)

        Zodpey, S.P. and S.N. Ughade, "Exposure to cheaper cooking fuels and risk of age- related cataract in women." Indian J Occ Environ Med, 1999. 3(4). Full Article (pdf)